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    According to Toynbee, considered the foremost authority on history, the normal span of a civilization is two thousand years. This is true of every civilization except the Egyptian civilization, which lasted four thousand years. Original work can be done in History, to solve mysteries. For instance: how were the pyramids of Egypt built. These pyramids cannot be built, even today. A possible explanation could be hydraulic pumps or hot air balloons. Another mystery is how were the natives of America, able to do work on vertical interface mountains? These were almost certainly done with hot air balloons.

    If the normal age of a civilization is two thousand years, the Christian era which started two thousand years ago may be coming to an end. If we want to save the world, it has to come to an end. Global warming is melting the ice caps everywhere. A way to stop global warming would be to lower considerable the use of vehicles. This can be done by inventing Helium/vacuum Air ships which run automatically without pilots through voice and electronic command; in fact I insist this is the only way to lower the use of automobiles and other polluting vehicles.

    Among the civilizations I can recall are the Chinese, Vedic, and Hindu. Mesopotamian Indus valley, Sumerian and possibly others.

    We have drawn from every civilization. For instance, the present system of time and date is Sumerian: sixty seconds make a minute, sixty minutes an hour, and twenty for hours a day. There is primitive logic in this: two, three, four five six ten twelve twenty can all divide sixty. Hence half one third one forth etc. Hence half an hour, quarter of an hour etc. The Indian system of pallavs ghatis etc is superior, as they all total sixty. In writing the numbers from one to nine six and nine change numbers if put upside down: this is a logical limitation of the number system. Even the alphabet is stylistically and logically defective.

    According to John Lyons Cambridge University Press in An Introduction to theoretical linguistics nothing superior to Sanskrit has been developed to that language before or since as far as he knows. These are the secrets of India, which became apparent only after the British and Germans studied the language.

    The Vedas of India contain many secrets which enabled Europeans to develop steam ships etc a short time after invading India: Agni, the fire god whose flames are known to drive horses. The Vedas were extensively studied in Britain till they were forgotten after serving their purpose. Sanskrit is a dead language you will hear many people say. There is a literary Sanskrit English dictionary which reveals the complexity and beauty of the language. The dictionary, compiled by Monier Williams has tens of thousands of words not found in any other language still. Take Ashwini Kumar: father of the first physician: heard it in any other Language? Mohandas: of two writers. Like this there are many many words. Every word in English is available in Sanskrit as the roots from which words are created have such a superior database that every word of all time in any language will be available in Sanskrit which ceased developing after the Greek invasion of India.

    A short history of India

    The original inhabitants of India were Adiivasi. I feel the Indus valley Civilisation, pushed them out of north India. Being primarily rice eaters, trees and other vegetation suffered as rice and trees cannot be inter cropped. This civilization came to an end when it stopped raining in North India due to the lack of trees. This civilization never thought of the pump. The pushed east, west South into Adivasi territory.

    I feel the Aryans came to northern India from Egypt after over development of the land rendered it sterile. They wandered to many places exchanging gold and other valuables which they had for food grains, fruits, vegetables and animals. They found a haven in Northern India. They revived the ecology of the land by sowing whatever they had acquired. They possibly never returned to the same place. Semi nomadic tribes they kept developing the land.

    Alexander the Greek invaded India and the Aryans got onto elephants. It is easy to run round elephants and charge ahead. People on elephants are difficult to injure. Alexander reached the water belt where he got malaria by a mosquito bite and died. Northern India did not have palaces and dwellings so the Greeks left never to return. Had they crossed the water belt, there were better houses then they were used to. There may have been permanent occupation.

    The Aryans developed the Nagri script and abandoned Sanskrit. Many Indian languages were developed with scripts based on the Nagri script. A good teacher deliberately makes a mistake so that a bright student can correct it: the Nagri script uses lines to join words, the script can also be written with dots to separate words. This I did in Nineteen eighty two. Soon faxes and finally the internet emerged. My paper towards a new concept of Literacy was a kind of brain storming. Using letters to encrypt sounds was a very time consuming process. The Chinese made the recordable chip and the sound card was developed in Singapore and Taiwan. Similarly LCD monitors and TV were developed. Encrypting sounds is actually far easier: you have to take the seven tones of music which are expressed over a current and voltage range: the ranges then have to be split into codes through a number or atomic clock. You have your sound card. Next LCD. The seven colors are: white, black, blue green yellow orange red. Liquid crystals change color with change in current and voltage. Do it the same way as with the sounds.

    The Aryans were peaceful people: they would rather stay under rule of foreigners then go into costly war. Muslim invaders came to India. They got strong men to build palaces, mosques and houses. For some reason the strong men secretly embraced Hinduism and then became Sikhs and restarted building palaces etc. It may be recalled that it was not all easy for Muslim invaders to conquer Dravidians.

    The British came and concentrated first on subduing Dravidians. The Dravidians started joining the British army. Five thousand British and nine thousand Dravidians over ran the Punjab. Sikhs with turbans in their hands surrendered as their King had been captured.

    The British had come to India with the idea of settling down in the country. Railways and cities were developed. They came across the same road block everywhere: As the river water temperature was far warmer in India the sewage and other effluents made the water poisonous. They gave independence to India and Pakistan and left. The borders were not natural like rivers and mountains. The cost of defense was horrific. Furthermore they told the Dravidians that the Aryans had invaded India and the land was Dravidian. It created lot of rifts and they were silent about the Adivasis who were the original inhabitants and were and are still decimating them.

    Independence came and people totally unfit to govern the land were emplaced. This may have been good as India may have been polluting the world like Europe and the USA are.

    The Future, I feel the future lies in Helium/vacuums and polymer/Acrylic technology. This is the only way to save the world. Furthermore farming should be inter cropped. Natural Pesticides and fertilizers should be used=urine and feaces. Honey boxes should be made on a large scale. Honey drives away insects. They cling to it for an hour; and then flee never to return. This is if it is unprocessed honey.